Germanium is an element that is a semiconductor, which makes it useful for making electronic devices. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Important properties that may be important in germanium chemistry and toxicology are the. Germanium chemical element royalty free vector image. General properties, states, energies, appearance and characteristics. Illustration of the germanium chemical element icon. Webelements periodic table germanium reactions of elements. Germanium ge chemical properties, health and environmental. According to iupac, chemical elements are not proper nouns in english. Germanium, basic physical and chemical properties of the element. Germanium element information, properties and uses. The chemical and physical properties of the element. It has a diamondlike crystalline structure and it is similar in chemical and physical. Nci thesaurus ncit germide 4 is a monoatomic tetraanion and an elemental germanium.
Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon. Electron transfer across the germaniumpolyelectrolytegold. The chemical element germanium is classed as a metalloid. Germanium, a chemical element between silicon and tin in group 14 iva of the periodic table, a silverygray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals. Allotropes are nothing but forms of an element with varying physical as well as chemical properties. A metalloid is an element that has characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. The image above is a virtual representation of germanium metal. Whether youve loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Germanium chemical element download this royalty free stock illustration in seconds. First proposed to exist by dmitri mendeleyev in 1871. The density of the different forms of carbon depends upon the origin of these elements.
Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 protons and 32 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical and physical properties of lithium, or li. It does not dissolve in water and does not react with oxygen at room temperature. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. Germanium is an important semiconductor, mainly used in transistors and integrated circuits. Germanium, physical and chemical properties springerlink. Germanium, a chemical element places between silicon and tin in group 14 of the periodic table. Find information on germanium including chemical element properties like atomic weight and a list of compounds that contain germanium. The physical data from those compoundswhich corresponded well with mendeleevs predictionsmade the. Germanium was another element that had not yet been discovered. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion. Some people promote it as a treatment for hiv and aids, cancer, and other conditions.
Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayishwhite metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. What is germanium properties of germanium element symbol. Classified as a metalloid, germanium is a solid at room temperature. Us3024148a methods of chemically polishing germanium. The number of electrons in each of germanium s shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is ar 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2. Find physical data, electron configuration, chemical properties, aggregation states, isotope data including decay trees as well as some historic information. Germanium pure germanium is a hard, lustrous, graywhite, brittle metalloid. Some compounds that include germanium are useful in killing bacteria while not harming animals. Germanium and its oxide are transparent to infrared light. It did not become economically significant until after 1945, when its properties as a semiconductor in electronics were recognized.
Germanium is atomic number 32 with element symbol ge. The periodic system or periodic law for chemical elements was first developed in 1869 by the russian dmitri i. Webelements periodic table germanium digermanium hexahydride. Also see the full list of chemical elements and atomic weights. Lothar meyer 18301895 independently developed a similar system around the same time. The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. It does dissolve in hot acids and with oxygen at high temperatures, however. Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium was discovered by clemens alexander winkler in germany in 1886 in a mineral sample from a silver mine. Germanium, chemical element reaction, water, uses, elements.
The pure element was commonly doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications. Such classification schemes illustrate the fact that useful horizontal as well as vertical relationships exist in the periodic table. Germanium is an element with atomic symbol ge, atomic number 32, and. Atomic and physical properties of group 14 elements youtube. At red heat, germanium reacts with oxygen in air to from germanium dioxide. Germanium element steel grades, properties and global. Symbol of chemical element germanium as seen on the periodic table of the elements, including atomic number and atomic weight. Today, however, other semiconductors have replaced it.
Physical and chemical properties of carbon chemistry byjus. Despite serious safety concerns, germanium is used for heart and blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure. Get the facts about element germanium ge 32 from the periodic table. Germanium is brittle and silverywhite under standard conditions. It is stable in air and water and does not get affected by alkalis and acids except nitric acid. Between what two elements with similar chemical properties does germanium fit.
It is a lustrous, hard, grayishwhite metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Winkler named the element as germanium for the country of germany. Natural lead is a mixture of four stable isotopes, 208 pb 5153%, 206 pb 23. If a proton were added to each germanium nucleus, however, you would not want to swallow the capsule because the germanium would. Gallium can infiltrate glass, so it should not be stored in a glass container. The physical and chemical properties of germanium closely parallel. Whereas phosphorous is a group 15 element, and chlorine is a group 17 element. Ge is a chemical element with a grayishwhite color whose position in the periodic table. Germanium ge chemical element periodic table 3d render. If a neutral element has the following chemical symbol, how many electrons does it have. Germanium chemical element with first ionization energy, atomic mass and electronegativity values,simple black icon with shadow on gray chemical element of periodic table. Germanium chemical element periodic table science symbol.
Comprehensive data on the chemical element germanium is provided on this page. Us3024148a us6841a us684157a us3024148a us 3024148 a us3024148 a us 3024148a us 6841 a us6841 a us 6841a us 684157 a us684157 a us 684157a us 3024148 a us3024148 a us 3024148a authority us united states prior art keywords solution etching germanium solutions parts prior art date 19570830 legal status the legal status is. Physical and chemical properties of gallium metal oxides. The physical and chemical properties of germanium closely parallel those of silicon. Therefore, when you break a piece of iron into smaller pieces or heat it, the piece still remains as the element iron. Germanium has a diamondlike structure and its properties are very similar to the physical and chemical properties of silicon. Gallium is light blue metal, which becomes a silvery white liquid at 29. It is a lustrous, hardbrittle, grayishwhite metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin. The surface of lumps of germanium is protected by a very thin layer of germanium dioxide, geo 2. This webelements periodic table page contains physical properties for the element germanium. Periodic table periodicity of properties of the elements. Certain methods of classifying elements on the basis of chemical properties are not strictly related to the groups in which the elements appear. Germanium element information, properties and uses periodic.
Group 14 physical and chemical properties definition. The metalloid was one of the elements predicted by mendeleev in 1871. Germanium resembles silicon in forming the hydride geh 4 and the chloroform gehcl 2, whilst the complex fluoride k 2 gef 6 resembles potassium silicifluoride, k 2 sif 6. Despite serious safety concerns, germanium is used for heart and blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease. Scientists are studying germanium for use in chemotherapy to help treat cancer. Isotope names of chemical elements are also uncapitalized if written out, e.
In its elemental form, cas 7440564, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi. The stable isotopes are only two, gallium69 and gallium71. Its also transparent to infrared radiation, so germanium can be used on the lenses of night. Shiny and silvery, yet very brittle, germanium is an important.
These physical properties determine the high economic importance of ge and compounds in the industry sector. When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties. Jan 23, 2018 recognizing that the missing component in argyrodite was a new element, winkler dubbed it germanium and proposed placing it between antimony and bismuth, based on chemical similarities with. Topics covered background basic information occurrence production of germanium isotopes health aspects key properties applications background.
Germanium is a hard, grayishwhite element, has a metallic luster but is brittle like glass. Germanium is a chemical element that can be found in trace amounts in some ores and carbonbased materials. Germanium is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps. Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid. Germanium was one of the elements whose existence was predicted in 1869 by russian chemist dmitri mendeleev, after he noticed a gap between silicon and tin in his periodic table. Chemical and physical information toxicological profile. Carbon and silicon are non metals, germanium is metalloid, whereas tin and lead are soft metals with low melting points. Used in semiconductor, infrared prism, mirror and wide angle lens, etc. Germanium is located in the middle of the carbon family, which is group 14 iva in the periodic table.
Recognizing that the missing component in argyrodite was a new element, winkler dubbed it germanium and proposed placing it between antimony and bismuth, based on chemical similarities with. Carbon is a nonmetal, silicon and germanium are metalloids, and tin and lead are metals. An element cannot be broken down into simpler substances by any physical or chemical methods such as heat, light electricity, or chemical reactions with other substances. Physical origin of chemical periodicities in the system of elements in. Find physical and chemical properties of germanium ge like element name, symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, density, color, melting point, boiling point, physical state at room temperature, isotopes, compounds, half life period, category, year of discovery and more. Physical properties of carbon family definition all the carbon family member are solids. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol ge and atomic number 32. The chart below shows the calculated isotope pattern for the formula ge 2 h 6 with the most intense ion set to 100%. The seven rows of the table, called periods, generally have metals on the left and nonmetals on the right. Get periodic table facts on the chemical and physical properties of the element arsenic, which is used as a doping agent in solidstate devices. Chemical and physical properties of gadolinium, a rare earth element. The element is mostly distributed in nature, but its too reactive to occur free.
It has a diamondlike crystalline structure and it is similar in chemical and physical properties to silicon. You will find some forms of carbon which are pure and some forms which are not pure like coal which is the mixture of both carbon and hydrogen. There are thirtyone isotopes of gallium and their atomic mass range from 56 to 86. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to each other.
Webelements periodic table germanium physical properties. It is crystalline and brittle and retains its luster in air. Mendeleev provisionally called the predicted element eka. Chemical properties of germanium element germanium, ge.
Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books youve read. Germaniumpolyelectrolytegold nanoparticle composites were prepared and characterized using ftiratr spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is more reactive than silicon, which is immediately above germanium in the periodic table, but not by much. Therefore, silicon, germanium, and lead will have similar chemical properties. Germanium is a chemical element with symbol ge and atomic number 32. Element germanium ge, group 14, atomic number 32, pblock, mass 72. Germanium 74 is the most abundant isotope while germanium 76 is the least abundant. The germanium ge element served as an internal reflection element and the buildup of the layered system was followed in situ. This is a 2by3 centimeter piece of polycrystalline germanium, weighing about 12 grams. Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 and symbol ge. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements. Slightly soluble in mercury to form gallium amalgam. In pure form, the element is a grayishwhite metalloid. Germanium is an element with atomic symbol ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.
Germanium is a block p, group 14, period 4 element. It does not form minerals but is present in the lattices of certain sulfides such as sphalerite, zns. Russian chemist dmitri mendeleev, who developed the periodic table, predicted that a new element will be discovered to fill an empty spot in the table. Germanium is not a biologically significant element and have no role in the bodies of plants or animals. Germanium ge chemical element periodic table 3d render download this royalty free stock illustration in seconds. Lead is a naturally occurring element and is a member of group 14 iva of the periodic table. When germanium is doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in electronic devices.
It is grayishwhite, lustrous, hard and has similar chemical properties to tin and silicon. A hard, greywhite, lustrous and brittle metalloid acts in properties between metals and nonmetals. Pure germanium is a hard, lustrous, graywhite, brittle metalloid. Lead isotopes are the stable decay product of three naturally radioactive elements. The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry. Germanium ge cid 6326954 structure, chemical names, physical and chemical.
Germanium 72 ge cid 44152739 structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety. Get periodic table facts on the chemical and physical properties of the element germanium. Dmitri mendeleev first named the element ekasilicon, but it was later renamed by winkler. The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor. It is classified as a metalloid having the same crystal structure as diamond. Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. The existence of germanium tetraethyl, gec 2 h 5 4, is in accord with the position the element occupies at the head of subgroup iv b in the periodic table.1371 293 625 1236 719 1084 1466 1378 1128 1311 752 223 163 481 126 858 1521 27 979 643 1211 1511 1052 254 1461 758 557 1323 978 1401 935 595 942 182